Presbyterianism

History:


Presbyterian- (Part of the christianity religion) Founded in the United Kingdom (Scotland and Ireland) in the 16th century. Based on the teachings of John Calvin and John Knox.
"A system of church government through local assemblies of clergy and lay elders of equal rank (known as a classis), in contrast to episcopacy, whose hierarchy of bishops was regarded by Presbyterians as a "popish" survival of the pre-Reformation church. Presbyterian doctrine is based upon the teachings of John Calvin (1509-64) with its central theme of predestination— everything that happens is pre-ordained by God." "
Calvin's theology was very similar to Martin Luther's. He agreed with Luther on the doctrines of original sin, justificationby faith alone, the priesthood of all believers, and the sole authority of the Scriptures." "
Second in importance to John Calvin in the history of Presbyterianism is John Knox. He lived in Scotland in the mid 1500's. He led the Reformation in Scotland following Calvinistic principles, protesting against the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, and Catholic practices. His ideas set the moral tone for the Church of Scotland and also shaped its democratic form of government. The Presbyterian form of church government and Reformed theology were formally adopted as the national Church of Scotland in 1690. The Church of Scotland remains Presbyterian today."
(David Plant, Presbyterians, British Civil Wars and Commonwealth website http://www.british-civil-
wars.co.uk/glossary/presbyterian.htm)
http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/presbyterian.htm

-Episcopacy; "The goverment of the church by a heiarchy of bishops."
"David Plant, Episcopacy, British Civil Wars and Commonwealth website http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/episcopacy.htm"
http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/episcopacy.htm

John Calvin- Hes from Switzerland. Born in july 10th 1509 and died May 27th 1564.

There are five points in Calvinism;
1. Total Depravity (original sin) - Everyone is born with sin but it can be overcome with good doing.
2. Uncoditional election (Gods election)- " No sinner every truly regenerates himself."
3. Limited atonement (particular redemption)- Sacrifice by Jesus for all men.
4. Irresistible grace (Effectual calling)-
5. Perseverance of the saints- Belief of God.
http://www.spurgeon.org/~phil/dabney/5points.htm

http://www.pcanet.org/general/history.htm

Before Presbyterian was called Presbyterian, it was call Calvinism and Armininasim. "
Calvinism is based on the theological beliefs and teaching of John Calvin (1509-1564), a leader in the Reformation, and Arminianism is based on the views of Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius(1560-1609).
After studying under John Calvin's son-in-law in Geneva, Jacobus Arminius started out as a strict Calvinist. Later, as a pastor in Amsterdam and professor at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, Arminius' studies in the book of Romansled to doubts and rejection of many Calvinistic doctrines.
In summary, Calvinism centers on the supreme sovereignty of God, predestination, the total depravity of man, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, and the perseverance of the saints.
Arminianism emphasizes conditional election based on God's foreknowledge, man's free will through prevenient grace to cooperate with God in salvation, Christ’s universal atonement, resistible grace, and salvation that can potentially be lost."



Visual:

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( Big websites;
http://christianity.about.com/od/denominations/a/calvinarminian.htm
http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/presbyterian.htm)

Theology:


Theology is the beliefs and theories of a religion, that separate it from others making it unique in its own way. Presbyterianism and Catholicism have similar basic ideas, but in a way are governed differently. Both believe that Jesus is our savior, in justice, yet Catholicism is a non democratic democracy, while Presbyterianism is. In Catholicism the Pope is the leader, with bishops under his rule that select ministers and they select the priests, all churches are under rule by the pope, so they are all ran the same. Presbyterianism on the other hand is a lot freer, they don’t have a pope, and their priests are selected by a group of elders and trusties. Since they are granted this freedom, each Presbyterian church is run slightly different depending on the priest, yet appropriately.
Presbyterianism also differs from Protestant faiths because of its different belief of sins. Presbyterianism believes in heaven and hell, but does not make it their goal to reach heaven; they make it their goal to connect with each other and people all around. Protestant faiths are more hung up in being forgiven for all their sins and making it to heaven, they mainly go to church for forgiveness from god.
Connected with Catholicism, the Presbyterian faith follows few of the 7 sacraments that Catholicism presents. The first sacrament it follows is baptism, the bringing of someone into the religion, Communion, and marriage. It does not follow reconciliation, the forgiving of all your current sins by god, because as previously stated sin is not their biggest concern; nor do they follow confirmation, anointing of the sick or the holy orders. Referring back to communion, anybody is aloud to tend their church sessions and receive communion, whether or not you are Presbyterian, or baptized. In Catholicism in order to receive communion you are required to have been baptized and received your first communion. Catholicism considers the bread and wine as the body and blood of Christ-literally, while Presbyterians think of it as symbolic.


Demography:

Population in Other Countries:

Countries
Population of Presbyterians
Percentage of
Population
United States
8.43 million
3%
Canada
1.17 million
4%
Australia
691,000
3.8%
New Zealand
678,000
18%
Vanuatra
66,000
37%
Singapore
10,000
0.36%
India
823,456
0.09%
Korea
2,094,338
4.7%
Myanmar
29,500
0.06%
Wales
55,000
1.96%

Number of Adherents Map:

MAP1.gif

Percentage Map:

MAP2.gif

Maps only show comparisons for the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Vanuatu.

Presbyterianism in Comparison with Other Religions:

Church
Members
The Catholic Church
68,503,456
Southern Baptist Convention
16,160,088
The United Methodist Church
7,774,931
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
6,058,907
The Church of God in Christ
5,499,875
National Baptist Convention
5,000,000
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
4,542,868
National Baptist Convention of America
3,500,000
Assemblies of God
2,914,669
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
2,770,730

Contemporary Topics:


Views on abortion

In 1965 the Presbyterian Church, "historically opposed abortion" (Ohlhoff 1); however, in as early as 1972 abortion has became more accepted within the church. In 2002, the church has affirmed their stance on abortion, saying that, "...late term abortion is still acceptable but pastoral and medical counsel is advised and it is suggested only in cases of rape, incest, fetal suffering, and to preserve the health and life of the mother" (LifeSiteNews.com 1). They believe one has the right to choose but they should consult their pastor about it before going through with the abortion.

View on Homosexuality

Homosexuality is accepted throughout the church. Recently they have allowed gay ministers, see the youtube video below.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z3wuzRgKd-I

Views On Mormons:

Presbyterians think of Mormons as different, because they are against gay marriage.
Works Cited
"The goverment of the church by a heiarchy of bishops." "David Plant, Episcopacy, British Civil Wars and Commonwealth website http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/episcopacy.htm" http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/episcopacy.htm

Fourtowns Presbyterian Church
Griffith Wylie
"Before I Forget…": Journal of the Poyntzpass and District Local History Society No. 2 (Nov., 1988), pp. 47-53 (article consists of 7 pages)
Published by: Poyntzpass and District Local History Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25512033
http://www.jstor.org/pss/25512033?searchUrl=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DPresbyterian%26x%3D0%26y%3D0%26hp%3D25%26sorigin%3Dunknown&Search=yes

"(David Plant, Presbyterians, British Civil Wars and Commonwealth website http://www.british-civil-
wars.co.uk/glossary/presbyterian.htm)"
Schmidt, Ron. “Presbyterian Theology”. Cleveland Heights, OH. 10/16/11

"Presbyterian Church," Wolfram Alpha LLC-A Wolfram Research Company, accessed October 13, 2011, http://www.wolframalpha.com/entities/religions/presbyterian_church/fy/qn/eu/

"Adherents.com: National & World Religion Statistics - Church Statistics - World Religions," accessed on October 16, 2011,
http://www.adherents.com/

"Abortion: Where Do the Churches Stand?" National Rights to Life, accessed on October 14, 2011,
http://www.pregnantpause.org/people/wherchur.htm

"US Presbyterian Church Votes to Allow 'Unrestricted Right' to Abortion till Viability," last modified June 24, 2002, LifeSiteNews.com, accessed on October 16, 2011,
http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/us-presbyterian-church-votes-to-allow-unrestricted-right-to-abortion-till-v

"Hartford Institute for Religion Research," Hartford Seminary, accessed on October 17, 2011,
http://hirr.hartsem.edu/research/fastfacts/fast_facts.html#largest