Lutheranism by Sindhura, Warren, and Grant

HISTORY~


WHO?
Lutheranism is based on the principles and theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German monk (and later priest) and professor who has been called the "Father of the Reformation". Luther was born in Eisleben, Saxony, (part of the Holy Empire) to a prosperous Christian bussinessman. At the young age of 13, he started focusing on topics such as personal piety, hell, and his own sinful deeds and soon developed interest in the becoming a monk. After Luther overcame obstacles, such as family pressure to become a lawyer, he dedicated himself to the monastic life.
martin-luther.jpg
Martin Luther

WHAT?
Lutheranism (the oldest denomination of Protestant denominations).

WHEN?
Most say that Lutheranism began in 1517, when the 95 Theses was issued.

WHERE?
Wittenburg, Germany

WHY?
Luther is not only well-known as the founder of Lutheranism, but also for publishing the 95 Theses in October 31, 1517. The 95 Theses is a document that challenged the teachings of the Church and the Pope in the 16th century. Luther called for a public debate on, "issues involving indulgences and basic church doctrines," among other Domincans (Civilizations Past&Present, 438). Luther struggled with the contradictions he saw between the Bible and some of the practices of the Catholic church. He kept his opposing views to himself at first but John Tetzel, a Domincon monk who sold "tickets" to heaven, infuriated Luther and drove him openly to oppose church practices. He fought to reform the church by exposing its corruption and abuses trhough the 95 Theses. Although Luther strongly opposed many aspects of Catholicism, such as denying the infallibility of the pope, he continued to embrace any practices of the church that did not directly contradict the scriptures. It was never his intent to divide the church, but his efforts toward reform proved to be unsuccessful and eventually he was excommunicated. He continued to spread his teachings despite threats to his life. He ultimately was successful with spreading his teachings mostly due its wide acceptance because it satisfied those who wanted to return to simple faith and those who fought church abuses and irrational authority.

95 Theses by Martin Luther
95 Theses by Martin Luther

WHEN DID LUTHERANISM COME TO AMERICA AND IN WHAT FORM?
In the 17th century (as early as 1624), Lutherans from Germany and Scandinavia began to migrate to the United States, bringing their culture and faith with them. Lutheranism is also known for its emphasis on education, and therefore, many Lutheran schools, colleges, and seminaries were built and in the 1600s leading to higher membership. When European immigrants that were Lutherans came to America, most settled in the Virgin Islands and the area that is now known as New York. This is shown by the spike of new Lutheran churches being built and the root of spread of Lutheranism in America. Even after the year 1800, German Lutherans and oher European Lutherans migrated to the US because of excess modernization and population growth in their own countries. This sudden rise in Lutherans living in America strengthened and expanded Lutheran churches and communities that already existed. The strong Lutheran stronghold was formed by the midwest because it was controlled by Germany at the time, and Germany transfered their religion to the U.S.

WHERE WAS IT MOST POPULAR?
Germany. Mostly due to the fact that it originated from there. By the late 1500s, Lutheranism had spread through all of Europe speedily. So one may say that Europe, as a whole, is where Lutheranism was most popular.

WHERE IS IT MOST POPULAR NOW?
The most number of Lutherans are in Germany, where 12,676,409 people are Lutherans. Luthernism is most popular in Europe amongst other continents with 36,828,845 Lutherans.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE EVANGELICAL AND MISSOURI SYNOD? WHEN DID THEY SPLIT?
The Evangelical and Missouri synods are the two main synods. They split over their views of homosexuality and levels of orthodoxy and interpretations of the bible in 2009.
The Missouri synod (LCMS), formed in 1847 by German immigrants, has over 2.5 million members and its headquarters can be found in St.Louis, Missouri. The Missouri synod's founders based many of its beliefs on the famous writing "The Book of Concord".
The Evangelical synod (ELCA), formed in 1988 with the union of three other large Lutheran sects, is the largest denomination of Lutheranism with 4.5 million members. Its headquarters can be found in Chicago, Illinois.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EARLY CALVINISTS AND LUTHERANS?
Both religions were and are similar in many ways because John Calvin was influenced by the beliefs of Martin Luther. Calvin basically followed Luther’s lead in reforming the Catholic Church.

John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564)

Martin Luther(November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546)

Calvinism emphasizes the doctrine of fate and destiny. They believe that God extends grace and grants salvation only to the chosen, and He already knows whether you are going to Hell or Heaven. Calvinists also stress the literal truth of the Bible. They preach that the church is a Christian community in which Christ is head and all members are equal under him. They differ with the Catholic belief of a church hierarchy and connecting with God through the Pope and Archbishops. Lutheranism on the other hand believes in redemption and forgiveness. They also differ with their beliefs of depravity; Lutherans believe all are born with sin while Calvinists don’t. Lutherans also believe that Christ died for all and Christ has irresistible grace. Calvinists also have opposing beliefs with these principles. These are jujst a few of the differences between Calvinists and Lutherans.

*Additional/Fun Facts*
  • The Protestant Reformation was a Christian reform movement in Europe. Many believe and argue that the Reformation began with Martin Luther's 95 Theses.
  • Many say that Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door
  • Luther has a controversial status due to his antisemitic views while he was suffering from deteriorating health
  • Luther opposed the designation of his name for the religion. And Lutherans was a term opponents called Luther's followers before it became a denomination.
  • The architectural pattern of most Lutheran churches is very similar to that of Roman Catholic and Anglican churches.
  • Printing Press aided his movement of spreading his word became a public hero


    The original title page of On the Jews and Their Lies, written by Martin Luther in 1543
    The original title page of On the Jews and Their Lies, written by Martin Luther in 1543



THEOLOGY~


Lutheran Beliefs:
  • Lutherans believe that Jesus, is the son of God and came into this world to be Christ, the Messiah and the redeemer
  • Lutherans believe that Jesus died on the cross for their sins and that his resurrection made it possible for people to believe in God and go to heaven for eternity
  • Lutherans believe that God is the creator and ruler of everything
  • Lutherans believe that God himself is three things the father, the son and the Holy Spirit. These three persons create one God and the Holy Trinity or Triune God.
  • Lutherans believe that salvation comes from God alone and not human actions
  • Lutherans believe that God has a plan for each individual person, and he controls what happens in one's life
  • Lutherans believe that through grace God gives undeserved forgiveness for all of their sins
  • Lutherans believe that God sent his own son Jesus Christ to be punished for our sins because he loves them
  • Lutherans believe that trust in Jesus is a necessity for salvation and faith
  • Lutherans find most of their believes from the Book of Concord, which is holy collection of theological declarations
  • Lutherans believe in the old and new testament in the Bible.
Sacraments:
Lutherans only follow two of the seven sacraments, being Baptism and Holy Communion.
Baptism:
Lutherans believe that baptism is an act of God that brings people into his kingdom. They believe that children should be baptized at a young age and adults should be baptized if they believe in God. Lutherans believe that the act of baptism is a spiritual act that God offers to forgive those of their sins.
Holy Communion:
Lutherans believe that because it was states in the bible that "While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and brokeit, and gave it to his disciples, saying, "Take and eat; this is my body." Then he took thecup, gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you. This is my
blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. “Matthew 26:26-28 Lutherans believe that communion is a way of expressing their belief that you are eating and drinking the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe that the act of communion is a way that God gives grace to them.
Evangelical Lutherans vs. Missouri Lutherans
Missouri Lutherans
  • Missouri Lutherans are more traditional than Evangelical Lutherans
  • Missouri Lutherans do not allow gays or women to be pastors
  • Apply the concept of modern life in many scriptures and teachings
  • Missouri Lutherans do not allow open communion, meaning that only members of the church are allowed to partake in communion

Theology of Evangelical Lutherans
  • Unlike Missouri Lutherans allow gays and women to be pastors
  • Evangelical Lutherans are more generous than Missouri Lutherans
  • Believe in open communion, meaning that you are allowed to partake in communion even if you are not apart of the church.
  • Abortion is not encouraged, however is looked at as a last resort
  • Believe that the death penalty is accepted if the person is a threat to a community
  • Reject the presence of Christ in sacrament
  • Professes similarities in belief with Roman Catholics
  • The need for personal conversion (or being "born again")
  • A high regard for biblical authority.
  • An emphasis on teachings that proclaim the saving death and resurrection of the Son of God, Jesus Christ
  • Actively expressing and sharing the gospel.

What Makes the Lutheran Faith Different From Other Faiths?
Unlike other religions, as a Lutheran you are born sinful, throughout your life as a Lutheran your duty is to redeem yourself from all of your sins and display your faith in God. By doing this their belief is that God will be forgiving of all of their sins and accept them into heaven for eternity.




DEMOGRAPHY~


Church Statistics:
(M) ...............................................................................................................................Member Church
(C) ..........................................................................Other Lutheran churches, bodies or congregations

USA.................................................................................................................... 7,423,192
Apostolic Lutheran Church of America (C) ................................................................................. 6,000
Association of Free Lutheran Congregations (C) ....................................................................... 44,500
Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America (C) ....................................................................... 8,860
Church of the Lutheran Confession (C) ........................................................................................8,108
Conservative Lutheran Association (C) ...........................................................................................994
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (M) ......................................................................4,543,037
Evangelical Lutheran Synod (C) ..................................................................................................19,848
Lutheran Churches of the Reformation (C) ................................................................................. 1,300
The Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod (C) .........................................................................2,400,000
The Protestant Conference [Lutheran] (C) ................................................................................... 1,000
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (C) ..............................................................................389,545

Number of individual Lutherans in USA – 18,000,000

· 2.4 million people belong to the Missouri synod

· 4.5 million people belong to the Evangelical synod
external image chart-of-lutheransxls.jpg
  • Germany has the most Lutherans in the world
Dif_4.png
According to a 1994 survey, there were 59 million Lutherans in the World (in 1994). In a 2010 survey, a reported 70 million Lutherans exist in the World.

http://www.electoral-math.com/archive/200402/index.html



Dif_2.png
http://www.rcms2010.org/maps.php

Dif_1.png
Evangelical Lutheran Population

http://www.electoral-math.com/archive/200402/index.html
  • · Deep red: 24.7% - 43-5%
  • · Red: 12.7% - 21.5%
  • · Orange : 12.5% - 10.3%
  • · Dark tan: 5.4% - 10.0%
  • · Light tan: 1.6% - 5.2%
external image 220px-Map_of_US%2C_Religions.svg.png
North and South Dakota, shown in yellow, are the only states in which a plurality of the population is Missouri synod Lutherans.
The pink and red represent where the majority of Evangelical Lutherans live.


Continent
Lutherans[5]
Europe
36,828,845
Africa
19,408,688
Asia
8,994,049
North America
7,631,705
Latin America & the Caribbean
1,132,289
Total
73,995,576

  1. of Churches
Country
Lutherans[5]
external image 22px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png Germany
12,676,409
external image 22px-Flag_of_the_United_States.svg.png United States
7,423,192
external image 22px-Flag_of_Sweden.svg.png Sweden
6,700,792
external image 22px-Flag_of_Indonesia.svg.png Indonesia
5,642,087
external image 22px-Flag_of_Tanzania.svg.png Tanzania
5,601,271
external image 22px-Flag_of_Ethiopia.svg.png Ethiopia
5,596,156
external image 22px-Flag_of_Denmark.svg.png Denmark
4,479,309
external image 22px-Flag_of_Finland.svg.png Finland
4,387,085
external image 22px-Flag_of_Norway.svg.png Norway
4,014,143
external image 22px-Flag_of_Madagascar.svg.png Madagascar
3,000,000
external image 22px-Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg.png Netherlands
2,096,774
external image 22px-Flag_of_Nigeria.svg.png Nigeria
2,042,000
external image 22px-Flag_of_India.svg.png India
1,935,419
external image 22px-Flag_of_Namibia.svg.png Namibia
1,128,993
external image 22px-Flag_of_Papua_New_Guinea.svg.png Papua New Guinea
1,049,455
external image 22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.png Brazil
951,466
external image 22px-Flag_of_South_Africa.svg.png South Africa
669,725

VISUALS/AUDIO~


Traditional Lutheran hymn about Christ's righteousness and the blood and body of Christ.

Famous people that are/were Lutherans.


St. Peter's Lutheran Church
Sunday prayers and worship
Sunday prayers and worship



Inside the Church
Inside the Church






CONTEMPORARY TOPICS~


Abortion:
The Evangelical Lutheran of Church in America is a union of three smaller Lutheran denominations which merged in 1988. Each had different views on on abortion. In 1990, the ELCA adopted a statement that accepts abortion but only as a "last resort" in the most extreme circumstances. The statement goes on to say that it opposes abortion ist except in the cases of "clear threat to the life of the woman", "extreme fetal abnormality" incompatible with life, and in cases of rape and incest. Beyond these cases "this church neither supports nor opposes" other abortion-restricting legislation.
Missouri Synod has passed a series of resolutions beginning in 1971 opposing abortion on demand and supporting the restoration of legal protection to the unborn child. It has urged all agencies of the LCMS to "continue to give testimony to its pro-life stance to all levels of government in the U.S."("The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod - ."). The LCMS has called for development of pro-life educational material for all age levels. The LCMS has vehemently opposed the so-called "Freedom of Choice Act" (FOCA) and strenuously supported the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (PBA Ban Act.)
Homosexuality+Gay Marriage:
The Missouri Synod believes that the Bible teaches that homosexual behavior is contrary to God's word and will, and seeks to minister to those who are struggling with homosexual inclinations. Missouri Synod believes that, "God gave marriage as a picture of the relationship between Christ and his bride," and therefore same-sex relationships and marriage are, "intrinsically sinful" (Marriage Human Sexuality). But because Christ, "offered to all through repentance and faith in Christ, regardless of the nature of their sinfulness," they believe that although one may be troubled by homosexuality or "unnatural desires" through repentance and help, they may be rescued from their sins.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is still in the process of developing a social statement directly related to homosexuality, yet they do call all Christians to respect all people, regardless of sexual orientation. The church will allow for the ordination of homosexuals to be ministers, but they are expected to abstain from homosexual sexual relationships.
Mormon Church:
All Lutherans believe Mormonism as an anti-Christian cult that uses many of the same terms as Christianity, but gives them entirely different meanings.

Economy Effects (membership trends):
The Missouri Synod's 2010 statistics report shows a 1.45 percent loss in baptized membership. This may not be completely blamed upon the recession and current economy, because this decline is continuing a 30-plus-year trend in declining church membership in the USA. Interestingly though, a study in 2010 revealed a slight increase (1.05 percent) in total giving. So although church membership has declined, donations have increased.




Works Cited
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"9 Lutheran Ethics in a Troubled Global Economy - Evangelical Lutheran Church in America." Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. http://www.elca.org/What-We-Believe/Social-Issues/Journal-of-Lutheran-Ethics/Book-Reviews/Luther-and-the-Hungry-Poor/9-Lutheran-Ethics-in-a-Troubled-Global-Economy.aspx (accessed October 16, 2011).

"Abortion." Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. http://www.elca.org/What-We-Believe/Social-Issues/Social-Statements/Abortion.aspx (accessed October 16, 2011).

"Home - Evangelical Lutheran Church in America." Home - Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. http://www.elca.org/ (accessed October 16, 2011).

"Lutheranism." Lutheranism-ReligionFacts. www.religionfacts.com/christianity/denominations/lutheranism.htm (accessed October 16, 2011).

"The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod - ." The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod. http://www.lcms.org/ (accessed October 16, 2011).

(1517), Dr. Martin Luther. "95 Theses - Luther." Internet Christian Library. http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/web/ninetyfive.html(accessed October 16, 2011).

“Martin Luther and the 95 Theses,” The History Channel website, http://www.history.com/topics/martin-luther-and-the-95-theses (accessed Oct 14, 2011).

Dickens, A. G.. Reformation and society in sixteenth-century Europe. 1st American ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966. Print.

Edgar, Robert R., Matthew Gordan, Neil J. Hackett, George F. Jewsbury, and Barbara S Molony. Civilizations Past & Present, Volume II (from 1300) (12th Edition) (MyHistoryLab Series). 12 ed. New York: Longman, 2007.

McElhatton, Jim. "Lutherans second church to split over gays." Washington Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/nov/19/conservative-lutherans-to-leave-synod/?page=all.

"St. Peter's Lutheran Church." St. Peter's Lutheran Church. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. http://www.stpeterslc.org/.

Graebner, Alan. "Birth Control and The Lutherans." JSTOR. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2011. http://www.jstor.org/pss/3786560.

Norton, David. The King James Bible. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.